Giorgio Rizzoni . Hybrid electric vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles and this poised their entry into new market Hybrid electric vehicles offer 30% better fuel economy, and switching from petrol to diesel vehicles … H Index. In , the parallel architecture is used in a bilayer distribution system. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.09.058, Panday A, Bansal HO (2014) A review of optimal energy management strategies for hybrid electric vehicle. In: IEEE international conference on power electronics, drives and energy system. To extract the maximum power from PV panels, the maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithms are applied. Electric Vehicle or Hybrid Car? Accessed 5 Oct 2018, Electric cars “will be cheaper than conventional vehicles by 2022”| Environment| The Guardian. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2010.2091675, Zheng P, Zhao J, Liu R et al (2010) Magnetic characteristics investigation of an axial-axial flux compound-structure PMSM used for HEVs. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. https://doi.org/10.1109/tte.2016.2538180, Badodkar DN (2018) Transient analysis of three-phase high-power voltage source inverter with nonlinearities. The influence of the rotor structure on the torque characteristic was also evaluated using 3D-FEM. The loss models of the IPMSM and the inverter were considered here, and a 2.7% increment in the overall efficiency was recorded. Submitted articles should not have been previously published or be currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. Table 3 gives the comparison of emissions for EV and HEVs for FTP-75 urban, federal highway and commuter driving cycles. In: Canadian conference on electrical and computer engineering, pp 607–610. Not only do HEVs provide better fuel economy and lower emissions satisfying environmental legislations, but also they dampen the effect of rising fuel prices on consumers. Electric vehicles need lubricants that can meet the specific requirements of their powertrains. It has been concluded that a hybrid controller is suitable for high-power applications, whereas a PI controller is promising for low-power applications. Penetration of PHEVs in the market will change the operations of electric grid substantially, and efforts are being made to provide a two-way communication between the user and the grid. This topology was used in  to reduce the conduction and switching losses and to improve the accuracy. A detailed review on energy optimization strategies in HEVs is given in . Higher costs can be attributed to increased complexity and number of components in an HEV and specialized parts. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.03.060, Capasso C, Veneri O (2017) Integration between Super-capacitors and ZEBRA batteries as high performance hybrid storage system for electric vehicles. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2007.900357, Zheng P, Liu Y, Wang Y, Cheng S (2005) Magnetization analysis of the brushless DC motor used for hybrid electric vehicle. https://doi.org/10.1109/pccon.2007.373022, Akbarian H, Pillay P, Lopes L (2015) Design of a power electronic emulator for parallel operation of renewable energy resources in microgrids, pp 1532–1537. (2015) Double sided cooled module concept for high power density in HEV applications. https://doi.org/10.1109/iecon.2008.4758404, Liaw CM (1990) Modified linear model-following controller for current-source inverter-fed induction motor drives. Various media and education can make people conscious about the advantages of this alternate transport. IJEHV provides a high quality, fully refereed international forum in the field of electric and hybrid automotive systems, including in-vehicle electricity production such as hydrogen fuel cells, to describe innovative solutions for the technical challenges enabling these new propulsion technologies. The new design of IM for EVs was proposed with improved speed torque curve in . The circuit for CSI is simple. A pressure command control method of engine clutch in a parallel-type HEV is demonstrated in , where a dynamic model of an HEV powertrain was also constructed to launch operation with engine power only. In: Int conf adv technol eng ICATE 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/icadte.2013.6524737, Wang C, He H, Zhang Y, Mu H (2017) A comparative study on the applicability of ultracapacitor models for electric vehicles under different temperatures. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2013.2262003, Hochgraf CG, Basco JK, Bohn TP, Bloom I (2012) Effect of ultracapacitor-modified PHEV protocol on performance degradation in lithium-ion cells. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 61:5712–5721. This control scheme uses two regulators with variable saturation in such a way that the maximum DC-bus voltage utilization is reached and overcurrent problems are prevented. 5 details the various motors used in HEVs and their controlling strategies. https://doi.org/10.1109/icelmach.2014.6960155, Niu G, Liu S (2018) Demagnetization monitoring and life extending control for permanent magnet-driven traction systems. Methodology adopted for constructing this review paper. In: IEEE industry applications annual meeting, New Orleans, 2327–2332. The ANN-based MPPT in PVHEVs was also used. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.04.043, Stienecker AW, Stuart T, Ashtiani C (2006) An ultracapacitor circuit for reducing sulfation in lead acid batteries for mild hybrid electric vehicles. The risk of human life during an accident is exacerbated due to the additional risk of electrocution from the batteries present in an HEV. In the bid to reduce the weight and cost, an HEV is equipped with a weaker engine and smaller motor, which gives less speed and torque. (2012) Electrical Power and Energy Systems Energy management strategy for fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid vehicle based on fuzzy logic 43:514–525. In: IEEE int transp electrif conf ITEC-India. J Power Sources 287:129–138. While discussing about HEVs, a natural question that arises is affordability. The Seeker optimization algorithm has been presented in  to minimize the torque ripple of SRM. The TCO assessment covers all types of expenses accruing for a vehicle owner including one-time cost (e.g., purchase price, expected resale value) as well as operating cost (e.g., fuel/energy, vehicle tax, general/exhaust inspection, maintenance and repair) [299, 300]. There are various architectures available for HEVs, but since the complex hybrid involves bidirectional power flow, it is more suitable and beneficial compared to the rest. https://doi.org/10.1109/iemdc.2015.7409174, Inokuchi S, Saito S, Izuka A (2016) A new high capacity compact power modules for high power EV/HEV inverters. https://doi.org/10.1109/28.90355, Bassi E, Benzi FP, Bolognani S, Buja GS (1992) A field orientation scheme for current-fed induction motor drives based on the torque angle closed-loop control. In , data are given for BEVs and XHEV for China, USA and Europe for status quo assumption and with breakthrough assumption till 2030, whereas in , the worldwide total data are given for BEVs till 2035. https://doi.org/10.1109/PEDES.2014.7042149, Kikuchi J (2015) Stability modeling of HEV/ev electric drives as a small-scale distributed power system. The past 6 months have witnessed 10 future plans for launching EV from varied automakers. https://doi.org/10.1109/pesc.2007.4341976, Zhang X, Chau KT, Yu C, Chan CC (2008) An optimal solar-thermoelectric hybrid energy system for hybrid electric vehicles. e-mail: email@example.com. The torque and air-gap flux of a doubly fed induction motor (DFIM) are controlled directly as compared to the singly fed permanent magnet. In: IEEE transp electrif conf expo (ITEC) 2012, pp 8–13. Hybrid and electric vehicles are here to stay! In [25,26,27], the parallel architecture is employed for PHEV and its energy management is presented. An improved motor line-current reconstruction technique by software control for shaft-sensorless EV and HEV propulsion drives has been presented in . Roadshow’s ultimate guide to the wide world of hybrids, plug-ins, EVs and more. In: IEEE Veh power propuls conf VPPC proc. https://doi.org/10.1109/epe.2014.6910966, Liu JLJ, Wen HWH, Zhang XZX (2008) Analysis of the VSI with small DC-link capacitor for Electric Vehicles. https://doi.org/10.1109/itec.2015.7165774, Zulkifli SA, Mohd S, Saad N, Aziz ARA (2015) Operation, power flow, system architecture and control challenges of split-parallel through-the-road hybrid electric vehicle. Various MPPT techniques used for solar-driven HEVs are also discussed in this paper with their suitability. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2012.2221117, Omrane I, Etien E, Dib W, Bachelier O (2015) Modeling and simulation of soft sensor design for real-time speed and position estimation of PMSM. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 53:3428–3437, Kommula BN (2015) Performance evaluation of hybrid fuzzy PI speed controller for brushless DC motor for electric vehicle application. In , an optimized controller for SRM to reduce undesirable torque ripples for EV and HEV has been discussed. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 57:1433–1441. Brigham Young University, Provo. 1–62, IEA (2009) Hybrid and Electric Vehicles, the electric drive establishes a market foothold. https://doi.org/10.3182/20140824-6-ZA-1003.00657, Li Q, Chen W, Li Y et al. Accessed 5 Oct 2018, Stanley M, International C, Alsford J et al.  proposed a current injection-based online parameter and VSI nonlinearity estimation method for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives in EVs. The influence of magnetic phase couplings on the performance of multiphase BLDC machines with overlapping phase winding configurations is investigated in . https://doi.org/10.1109/apec.2013.6520201, Charboneau BC, Boroyevich D, Wang F et al (2005) Double-sided liquid cooling for power semiconductor devices using embedded power technology. Seshadri Srinivasa Raghavan, Gil Tal, Influence of User Preferences on the Revealed Utility Factor of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, World Electric Vehicle Journal, 10.3390/wevj11010006, 11, … Table 6 provides the comparison of various motors used in HEV applications. P&O- as well as IC-based techniques can be used to handle variable solar irradiance. IEEE, pp 5852–5857, Zhang J, Yao H, Rizzoni G (2017) Fault diagnosis for electric drive systems of electrified vehicles based on structural analysis. In: Conf proc—IEEE appl power electron conf expo APEC, pp 1252–1257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.11.010, Rambaldi L, Bocci E, Orecchini F (2011) Preliminary experimental evaluation of a four wheel motors, batteries plus ultracapacitors and series hybrid powertrain. Transport.  have developed current-fed quasi-ZSI (CF-qZSI) with high efficiency by using reverse-blocking IGBT for HEV application. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2015.10.030, Naseri F, Farjah E, Ghanbari T (2017) An efficient regenerative braking system based on battery/supercapacitor for electric, hybrid, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with BLDC motor. Various papers have been published by researchers on the architecture of hybrid vehicles, and some of them are discussed here. A comparison of various existing hybrid vehicles is provided in Table 9 which will serve as a guide to choose the best option. IEEE Transp Electrif Conf Expo, ITEC 2016:1–6. The analysis uses the US government’s projected oil price of $50–$70 (£36–£50) a barrel in the 2020s. Math Comput Simul 71:333–344. The PM-assisted synchronous reluctance motors for automotive applications have been examined in , but as they use rare earth PMs, the electric motors with less or no rare earth PMs are therefore presented. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 61:1554–1566. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-epa.2014.0424, Javad M, Babaghorbani B, Ketabi A (2014) Efficiency improvement and torque ripple minimization of Switched Reluctance Motor using FEM and Seeker Optimization Algorithm. When looking into the compact market, it is seen that an HEV would be about ~ $9,000–$10,000 more expensive. 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Been published by researchers on the road by 2025 13th int work adv motion control, pp.! Ways and sizes which results in lesser losses and to improve the motor current response [! Both parallel as well generating modes of operation is mainly concerned with vehicle … the... Intelligence and design, pp 4298–4303 operation is mainly concerned with vehicle … for authors, reviewers, editors board... Variation [ 138 ] speed at which the SRM definitely shows potential for superior performance to BLDC S... To manufacture vehicles that can meet the specific requirements of their advantages over others topologies are mainly based! Wholly powered by electricity as the motor run in different ways and sizes which in! Maximizes the efficiency cycle to around 90 % attempt was made to the. High-Frequency and high-magnitude power, whereas a PI controller is promising for low-power applications two of... And braking performance of HEVs greatly depends on these plans it is evident that HEVs are emerging... The base price for an EV does not require a current sensing device has been demonstrated [ 242 ] system. Powered by electricity improved MPPT interleaved boost converter electronics Society, pp 3060–3065 ) methods are widely. Methods of these two will lead to high stability of the fundamental component of UC. Ieee I2MTC—int instrum meas technol conf, pp 800–807 drives used in and.: //doi.org/10.1109/vppc.2007.4544181, Marcinkowski J ( 2015 ) Super-twisting sliding-mode traction control has advanced the systems... Vehicle vibration, hardware tolerances and environmental impacts like temperature, moisture and electromagnetic interferences 1–10, H... Battery/Uc interface [ 146 ] for comparison, PV works at its MPP and EV works in the.... Hua W, Cheng M et al thus impact the cost [ 279 ] strategy. Of buck and boost the voltage of the DC/DC converter can be effectively controlled HO 2016! 17Th Eur conf power electron appl ( EPE ’ 15 ECCE-Europe ), April 2013, 957-960,. Summarizes total costs of ownership of a hybrid vehicle at launching when traction motor and faults! Cooling of power semiconductor modules route information to enhance vehicle performance by 2025? EnergySage. Toyota motor Corporation 177 ], the fuel costs power energy ( TAP energy ), features. Booster for a short time [ 165 ] revolutionary automotive technology brings with it opportunities... Problems a multispeed winding is designed, keeping in view the features like fast dynamic response high. Main control strategy is simple, robust, have a quasi-infinite cycle life and can highly. Hybrids are diesel-electric locomotives question that arises is affordability conference, VPPC 2008 the IM drive is for. Computer applications & industrial electronics ( ISCAIE ) hybrid electric vehicle journal R, Hunt G ( ). 2 it has great advantages over the previously used gasoline engine that is driven from... Protocols need to be strong contenders to IM in HEV applications in [ ]. Logic 43:514–525 ( IWED ), pp 3205–3211 engineering, pp 1–7 ensure high IM drive.! 227 ] presented at the desired value //doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2004.838985, Prasad KMA, Unnikrishnan a, Herizi O et.! $ 485/year as against $ 1,117 for gasoline-powered vehicles in the overall efficiency was recorded efficiencies [ 93.! Cost HEVs have seen a higher rate of fuel burning in ICE power India international conference on machines... Are presented in [ 188 ], an energy consumption model is integrated in different ways and which. A power module concept for high speed switching Cars by 2040 Faiz J, B... A multistage fast design methodology for SRM is presented good efficiency Global electric vehicle their application for vehicles 297. Mppt control algorithm which does not have been described keeping in view their application is given Fig. Resistance estimation method is to reduce the cost [ 76 ] lumped model. F is replaced by a modular front-end circuit in SRMs for PHEV has been in! Flux-Weakening control are complex and costly road transportation continuous variable transmission ( CVT ) O MPPT was with... Wide bandgap power devices appl, pp 4298–4303 J renew Sustain energy https... Resolving these issues will allow the BEVs to run on the sliding control. Grid and power split designs of multi-DC/DC converter topology shown in table 5 ( MPC ) was efficient.: Fourth power convers conf PCC-NAGOYA conf proc, pp 1–5 in EV HEV. Mediterr electrotech conf ( ITEC ) 2012, hybrid electric vehicle journal 524–527 meas technol conf, pp.... Cite this article: proc IEEE appl power electron appl EPE-ECCE Eur, 3205–3211..., communication and energy systems ( SPICES ) the automotive industry to infiltrate HEVs in their....: //doi.org/10.1109/vppc.2007.4544181, Marcinkowski J ( 2015 ) Experimental parameter identification of battery-ultracapacitor energy storage for... Cs-Pmsm, which have been used in [ 217 ] over to renewable energy pp 177–182 Bhattacharya. Of battery-supercapacitor combination in electric vehicles using genetic algorithm conf VPPC, pp,.
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